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Zhang Zhan (fl. ca. 317), who subscribed ralph lauren polo shirts to Guo Xiang’s ziran as “fate,” went a step farther to advocate hedonism, since human effort, to him, is of no avail to mold human destiny. He said, Fate is an infallible appointment, a predestined lot. Although an event may have yet to materialize, its course [of development] ralph lauren polo shirts has already been fixed. If one thinks one’s lifespan depends on nourishment, and prosperity and frustration in life hinges on intelligence, one is confused about the course determined by heaven. 86 The “course determined by heaven,” also known as the course of autogeneity , is impersonal and impervious to human intel- ligence.87 Thus, if fate is not operative as it is, Zhang Zhan insists, then benevolent and intelligent people will invariably live a long life while ralph lauren polo shirts cruel and foolish people will invariably die a premature death. But in reality, this is not necessarily true Zhang even went so far as to say that our action or inaction is not determined by ourselves and the actual power of determination is beyond ralph lauren polo shirts our understanding Given such fatalistic outlook, it is no surprise that Zhang Zhan would espouse a philosophy of carpe diem. To him, life is a temporary coalescence of cheap ralph lauren primal forces and a thing such as man is but a transitory flickering of intelligence. Given that man prefers comfort to labor, a person does not know how to appreciate the fun of life if he does not give free rein to what pleases his nature but instead fetters himself with benevolence and rites.90 Zhang Zhan’s advocacy of hedonism represented the peak of the development of the xuanxue idea of ziran as immutable fate; it found its way into a wide spectrum of literati in early medieval China and thus reinforced the growing belief in hard destiny lauren by ralph lauren since the late Han. Clearly, Zhang Zhan’s doctrine of fatalism could not offer much hope for a meaningful life because human effort was considered futile, if not in fact harmful. This gloomy worldview indeed loomed large in the early medieval period. Even Xie An (320–385), the famous ambitious Prime Minister of the Eastern Jin, confessed to the monk ralph lauren canada Zhi Dun (314–366) that he could not but grieve over the fact that life is like a temporary lodging. Even his glorious political career would eventually vanish.91 This pessimistic worldview was acutely sensitive to the limitations of human effort, and those limitations in turn tended to warrant a romantic spirit of general despair. When polo by ralph lauren we come to the fifth century, Gu Jizhi (d. 467) seems to have given a systematic elaboration of the doctrine of fatalism. According to his biography in the Nan shi (History of the Southern Dynasties), Gu argued that the lot predetermined by destiny is ineluctable, and it cannot be changed by human intelligence. Therefore,ralph lauren polo outlet one should remain humble to the Way,raulph lauren have faith in heaven and let oneself go along with destiny.92 Though he himself did not write on the topic of fatalism, Gu had his students compose an essay with the title of “Dingming lun” (On predetermined destiny).93 While it is not clear if the xuanxue idea of ziran played a role in Gu’s argument for fatalism, it certainly lent philosophical support to people in early medieval China who opted for a fatalistic worldview.94 It is, then, clear that ralph lauren polo shirt the belief in hard destiny prevailed in early medieval China. Yet, despite its wide currency, this other-oriented approach to explicate moral fortuity did not command universal respect. Even as the religious Daoists were striving cheap ralph lauren polo shirts to integrate hard destiny and soft destiny into a coherent system of beliefs, Buddhism had arrived in China and became implicated in the native Chinese search for an explanation for moral fortuity that could set their minds at peace. ralph lauren t shirts Buddhism opened up a new spiritual universe to the Chinese, but as far as the problem of moral fortuity is concerned, the Buddhist doctrine of karma offered an ingenious, if not entirely original, approach to revisit it. The belief in karmic retribution represented a polo ralph lauren sale self-oriented approach that grounded human destiny on man’s own moral cultivation. In early medieval China, it attracted an extraordinarily large following. In fact, in the long process of Buddhism’s assimilation into Chinese culture, the karma doctrine often became a liability and bore the brunt of severe condemnation from its critics—this very fact betrays the agonizing predicament about destiny and moral retribution in early medieval China, yet ironically, the very liability also facilitated the process and its eventual success.As suggested earlier, the emergence of the chengfu theory and the Confucian attempt to strike a balance between ralph lauren jeans destiny and retribution indicate an existential and intellectual need to account for the historical cheap ralph lauren polo predicament and personal suffering people encountered in early medi- eval China. This need paved the way for the triumphant march of Buddhism into China, and predisposed the Chinese people to under- stand Buddhism almost exclusively in terms of its doctrine polo ralph lauren outlet online of karma and transmigration. The success of the Buddhist theory of karmic retri- bution lies in its removal of the contradictions inherent in the chengfu theory by introducing the idea of individual karma and rejecting the worldview of hard destiny. In what follows, I shall not attempt to give a panoramic picture of the karma doctrine. Rather, I shall discuss a few of its aspects that proved to be relevant to resolving the dilemma with poloralphlauren the belief in unpredictable destiny and the belief in effort-based retribution.

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